State Requirements for getting a small farmstead dairy operation
licensed in New York state.
Notes from an October 2005 presentation by Linda Smith of Sherman
Linda and her daughter Morgan own and operate a 40-head dairy goat
farm and creamery. Linda has owned goats for over 30 years, shipped
milk from 1988 to 1993 and has been making cheese since 1993.
- Barn - inspected every 6 months
Milk parlor - easiest to construct
- limited manure pack
- healthy animals
- no other species co-mingled
Milk House - Except for bulk tank, this room can be very basic.
You will need drawings showing the perimeter, floor drain, sink, etc.
This can be a sketch with dimensions (rather than a blueprint).
- concrete floor - smooth surface (doesn't need to be perfect)
- floor drain
- washable walls and ceiling - plywood, wafer boards, etc.
- use a high quality oil base white paint
- adequate lights - inexpensive fixture are fine - near milking
- concrete, PVC plastic, metal milk stands or stanchions - your
- doors usually open out - automatic use a bungy
- floor drain - goes to dry well
- water source - water tested every 6 months - wells or municipal
preferred. To remedy: ultraviolet light or chlorinator. If in doubt,
sample water before you begin all this.
- machine milking - your choice of type (hand milking is still allowed)
- - be aware of state guidelines, but check with others using a
pipeline. Do not use the state's 1-1/2" recommendation.
- concrete floor, with floor drain
- perimeter should be block - hopefully creates a seal with floor
- floor drain - located near valve on a bulk tank
- 2 bay sink for wash-yup should be big enough for milk pail
- hand wash sink
- size the milk house to center bulk tank with 3' clearance on each
- lights - over wash-up sink protected lights over bulk tank "shatter-proof"
- source for hot water - 40 - 50 gal. hot water tank is usually
- Electricity - most costly
- Oil allows a heat source for cheese house and will be most
- racks to store milking units etc.
- walls need to be painted and washable
- don't forget milk strainer
- nice to have a claw washer, automatic washer for milking unit
- use appropriate cleaning supplies and Chlorox
- doors and windows - tight, with screens
- double-walled - insulation helps
- bulk tank: 100 - 200 gal. tanks are hard to find. 300 gal. works
but you'll need enough milk to make the agitator work.
- concrete floor
- floor drain
- block between floor and walls
- washable walls, bright paint
- 3-bay sink
- hand sink
- tight doors and windows -- goOd ventilation for moisture control
- placement of lights - over sink, work area, and/if pasteurizer
- coolers or refrigerators
- must be double walled, insulation important
- recording thermometer
- air space thermometer
- new or used
- air space heater for pasteurizer - hot plate with pressure canner
- Delvo test for antibiotics (even if you do not use antibiotics
on your farm)
- Equipment - your choice, stainless
- transfer pump - move milk
- bulk tank for cooling purposes
- air conditioner
- aging room
- storage room
- product liability insurance
- Every month the inspector samples your milk and two tests are
run: somatic cell count (SCC) and standard plate count (SPC)
- Cheeses are sampled:
- to prove pasteurization (unless aged for at least 60 days
under required conditions)
- to test for E. coli, listeriosis, etc.
Raw Milk Licensing Requirements:
- Lower SCC (somatic cell count)
- Lower SPC (Standard Plate Count) g 30,000
- Visit from Quality Control
- Brucellosis and TB Testing
Things to think about:
Physical proximity to each other
- Parlor close to animals - less handling of animals in/out arrangement
- Milk house and cheese house - close to each other means less
handling of milk
- If they are distant, you'll need a tank for moving milk.